Lesson 6.2

会話 Dialogue 2 image

Michael: Otaku wa dochira desu ka.Where is your house?

たく

お宅はどちらですか。

Honda: Yokohama desu.It’s in Yokohama.

よこはま

横浜です。

Michael: Tsuugaku wa densha desu ka.Do you commute by train?

つうがく でんしゃ

通学は電車ですか。

Honda: Ee, uchi kara daigaku madeYes, from home to university

densha de ichi-jikan gurai kakarimasu.it takes about an hour by train.

だいがくでんしゃ いちじかん

ええ、うちから大学まで、電車で 一時間ぐらいかかります。

Michael: Sore wa taihen desu nee.That must be hard.

たいへん

それは大変ですねえ。

 

単語 Vocabulary

Romanized Japanese

Hiragana

Other Japanese scripts

English

otaku

おたく

お宅

home (polite)

shusshin

しゅっしん

出身

hometown, birthplace, where from

yokohama

よこはま

横浜

Yokohama

tsuugaku

つうがく

通学

commute to school (noun)

tsuukin

つうきん

通勤

commute to work (noun)

densha

でんしゃ

電車

train

chikatetsu

ちかてつ

地下鉄

subway

basu

バス

bus

kuruma

くるま

car

jitensha

じてんしゃ

自転車

bicycle

takushii

タクシー

taxi

toho

とほ

徒歩

walk (noun)

hikouki

ひこうき

飛行機

airplane

shinkansen

しんかんせん

新幹線

bullet train

fune

ふね

boat

uchi

うち

内、家

home, house

kara

から

particle: from

made

まで

particle: as far as, up to

de

particle: by means of

densha

でんしゃで

電車で

by train

~jikan

〜じかん

時間

~hours

ichi-jikan

いちじかん

一時間

one hour

gurai

ぐらい

about, approximately

yaku

やく

about, approximately

yaku ichi-jikan

やくいちじかん

約一時間

about an hour

hodo

ほど

about, as much as

kakarimasu

かかります

it takes (time, money, etc.)

nagai

ながい

長い

long

mijikai

みじかい

短い

short

Cities image

Hiragana

Kanji

English

とうきょう

東京

Tokyo

よこはま

横浜

Yokohama

なごや

名古屋

Nagoya

おおさか

大阪

Osaka

きょうと

京都

Kyoto

ひろしま

広島

Hiroshima

ふくおか

長崎

Nagasaki

さっぽろ

札幌

Sapporo

Islands

Hiragana

Kanji

English

きゅうしゅう

九州

Kyushu

きゅうしゅう

四国

Shikoku

ほっかいどう

北海道

Hokkaido

ほんしゅう

本州

Honshu

おきなわ

沖縄

Okinawa

Map of Japan

Map of Japan
Map of Japan with major cities marked, including Tokyo, Sapporo, Akita, Sendai, Yokohama, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Kitakyushu, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, Kagoshima.

“Japan-map.gif” by www.cia.gov is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Grammar Notes

6-2-1 Counting Hours

You saw the classifier ~ji for telling time in Lesson 2, as in ichi-ji ‘one o’clock’ and ichi-ji han ‘1:30’. In this lesson, you’ll learn how to COUNT time, i.e., how to describe length of time. The first classifier of this type is –jikan for counting hours,. It attaches to the Chinese numerals. Ichi-jikan means one hour and ichi-jikan han means one and a half hours. The question word for ‘how many hours’ is nan-jikan, while the

question word for ‘what time’ is nan-ji. Also note that jikan alone means time in general.

じかん

時間がありません。Jikan ga arimasen.There is no time.

じかん

時間がかかります。Jikan ga kakarimasu.It takes time.

じかん

ちょっと、お時間、いいですか。Chotto, ojikan ii desu ka.

Do you have some time (Can I talk to you?)?

やく

6-2-2 Approximation: ~ぐらい、〜ほど、約〜

~gurai, ~hodo and yaku all mean ‘about’ and indicate an approximate quantity.

~gurai and ~hodo follow the quantity expression while yaku~ precedes it:

:

いちじかん

一時間ぐらいあります。Ichi-jikan gurai arimasu. We have about an hour.

いちじかん

一時間ほどあります。Ichi-jikan hodo arimasu. We have about an hour.

やくいちじかん

約一時間あります。Yaku ichi-jikan arimasu. We have about an hour.

いちまんえん

一万円ぐらいかかります。Ichi-man-en gurai kakarimasu.

It costs about ten thousand yen

やくいちまんえん

約一万円かかります。Yaku ichi-man-en kakarimasu.

It costs about ten thousand yen.

You may even hear yaku ichi-jikan gurai or yaku ichi-jikan hodo. It may seem redundant to have approximation expressed twice in the same phrase, but this is common.

Dore grai and dono gurai both ask ‘how long/how much’ and ikura gurai asks how much (money).

かいしゃ

会社まで、どのぐらいかかりますか. Kaisha made dono gurai kakarimasu ka.

How long does it take to get to work?

このアパート、いくらぐらいでしょうか. Kono apaato, ikura gurai deshou ka.

How much do you suppose this apartment (rent) is?

Approximation, or making things vague, is preferred over being exact and considered more polite in many situations in Japan. This may be because the approximation allows wiggle room. So, when given an approximate number, you are expected to figure out what number is actually meant in each context. Unless it’s critical, Japanese people usually do not request clarification.

6-2-3 Particle de “by means of”

A noun followed by particle de indicates the means by which something is done.

Note that there are a number of ways in which this might be translated into English. The

particles はand も can be added to this particle.

めあ

おはしで召し上がりますか。Ohashi de meshiagarimasu ka.

Are you going to eat with chopsticks?

タクシーで行きましょう。Takusii de ikimashou.

Let’s go by a taxi.

に ほ ん ご はな

日本語では話しませんでした。Nihongo de wa hanashimasen deshita.

I didn’t talk in Japanese.

でんしゃ いちじかん

電車でも一時間かかります。Densha de mo ichi-jikan kakarimasu.

It takes one hour by train, too.

6-2-4 the starting point ~kara、the ending point ~made

The particle kara indicates the point from which something starts and the particle

まで indicates the limit at which something ends.

さんじ かいぎ

三時から、会議です。San-ji kara, kaigi desu.

From 3:00, I have a meeting.

せんせい き

先生からメールが来ました。Sensei kara meeru ga kimashita.

An email came from the teacher.

きょうと

京都まで、いくらですか。Kyouto made ikura desu ka.

How much is it to go to Kyoto?

えき ねが

駅まで、お願いします。Eki made onegai-shimasu.

To the station, please. (in a taxi).

あさ ばん しごと

朝から晩まで、仕事です。Asa kara ban made shigoto desu.

I work from morning till night.

Compare the examples below with time expressions:

さんじ

三時にします。San-ji ni shimasu.I’ll do it at three.

さんじ

三時からします。San-ji kara shimasu. I’ll do it from three.

さんじ

三時までします。San-ji made shimasu. I’ll do it until three.

Compare the examples below with location expressions:

とうきょう い

東 京に行きます。Toukyou ni ikimasu.

I’ll go to Tokyo (I may go to other places as well).

とうきょうかいぎい

東 京で会議に行きます。 Toukyou de kaigi ni ikimasu.

I’ll go to a meeting in Tokyo.

とうきょう い

東 京から行きます。Toukyou kara ikimasu.

I’ll go from Tokyo.

とうきょう い

東 京まで行きます。Toukyoumade ikimasu.

I’ll go up to Tokyo (but not farther).

The noun plus these particles makes a noun phrase so they can be directly followed by desu and take no to modify another noun.

かいぎさんじよ じ

会議は三時から四時までです。Kaigi wa san-ji kara yoji-made desu.

The meeting is from three to four.

りゅうがくせい

アメリカからの留学生

Amerika kara no ryuugakusei

an exchange student from America

ぎんこうさんじ

銀行は三時までじゃないですか。Ginkou wa san-ji made ja naidesu ka.

Isn’t the bank open until three?

Drills and Exercises image

A.

いちじかん
Cue: 一時間ですか。Is it one hour?

うちだいがくいちじかん
Response: はい、家から大学まで一時間ぐらいかかります。

Yes, it takes about one hour from home to college Cue: 30分ですか。Is it thirty minutes?

うちだいがくぷん

Response: はい、家から大学まで、30分ぐらいかかります。

Yes, it takes about thirty minutes from home to college.

やく

* Repeat this drill using 約 yaku~ instead of ぐらい gurai.

B.

でんしゃ べんり
Cue: 電車が便利ですね。The train is convenient, isn’t it.

でんしゃ い
Response: ええ、電車で行きましょう。Yes, let’s go by train.

べんり
Cue: バスが便利ですね。The bus is convenient, isn’t it?


Response: ええ、バスで行きましょう。Yes, let’s go by bus.

C.

Say it in Japanese.

You are planning your business trip. Find out how long it takes:

  • from here to the subway station by foot
  • from Tokyo to Kyoto by Bullet train
  • from Osaka to Okinawa by plane
  • from the first floor to the top floor by stairs
  • from Ms. Yamada’s company to the nearest station by bus Having been asked the above questions, answer that it takes:
  • about 10 minutes
  • two and a half hours
  • about 1 hour and 45 minutes long
  • about 1 hour in the morning, but only 15 minutes in the afternoon

D.

Act in Japanese

  • Ask a business associate a) where her home is, b) how she commutes, and c) how long it takes from her home to her work. With your classmates, ask and answer the same questions.
  • Find out a) what time the library opens, b) what time it closes, c) from what time to what time it’s open on Saturday.
  • Ask the taxi driver to go to Tokyo Station. Mention that you are going to take the 9:00 Bullet Train.
  • You are thinking of writing this report using a) Word, b) Japanese and English, c) black pen only. Ask a co-worker if it would be alright.
  • At a parking facility, find out the fee for a) one hour, b) additional 15 minutes, c) Saturday and Sunday

 

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