Lesson 8.1

会話Dialogue 1 Headphones

しゅうまつ
Yamada:ねえ、この週 末、忙しい?Nee, kono shuumatsu, isogashii?

Hey, are you busy this weekend?

Emily: ううん、別に。なんで?Uun, betsuni. Nan de?

No, not particularly. Why?

すもう み
Yamada: 相撲、見たくない?Sumo, mitaku nai?

Wanna see sumo?


Emily:見たい!Mitai!

I do!

あと
Yamada:じゃ、後でメールする。Ja, ato de meeru-suru.

Then, I’ll email you later.

Emily:オッケー。Okkee.

Okay.

Yamada:じゃ、バイバイ。Ja bai bai.

See you later.

 

単語 Vocabulary

Romanized Japanese

Japanese scripts

Other Japanese Scripts

English

nee

ねえ

hey (to get attention, casual)

shuumatsu

しゅうまつ

週末

weekend

getsumatsu

げつまつ

月末

end of the month

+nenmatsu

ねんまつ

年末

end of the year

isogashii

いそがしい

忙しい

busy

hima (na)

ひま(な)

free time

uun

ううん

no (informal)

un

うん

yes (informal)

betsu ni

nan de

べつに

なんで

別に

not particularly (always negative meaning)

why? what for? (casual)

sumou

すもう

相撲

sumo (wrestling)

omatsuri

おまつり

お祭り

festival

mitai

みたい

見たい

want to see/watch

mitaku nai

みたくない

見たくない

do not want to see/watch

ato de

あとで

後で

later

meeru-suru

メールする

email (informal) See 8-1-1

okkee

おっけい

オッケー

okay

baibai

ばいばい

バイバイ

bye bye

文法 Grammar Notes

8-1-1 Verb Plain Form, Non-Past, Affirmative

Verbs have many forms. We have so far covered the formal form (~masu forms), ~te form, ~tai form and the honorific form. In this lesson, we introduce the plain (informal) form. The plain forms are typically used in the three ways below. Due to these uses the plain form is sometimes called by different names as shown in the parenthesis.

  • Dictionaries list verbs in this form (thus called Dictionary forms)
  • Other elements can be attached to this form to create more complex grammatical patterns (thus called Basic Forms)
  • It is used in the informal style conversations (thus called Informal Forms)

As explained in Lesson 7, in the informal style conversations you can simply drop desu from adjective and noun sentences. However, for verb sentences, you need to know the plain form of each verb.

Japanese verbs are divided into the following four major groups on the basis of their conjugation patterns.

Group 1: U-verbs (~u ending verbs)

This is the largest verb group. If you drop ~masu from the ~masu form, you get the verb stem. The stem of all the verbs in this group ends in ~i. To make the plain form, replace the final ~i of the stem with ~u.

Stem

Plain Form

English

wakar-i

wakar-u

‘understand’

ka-i

ka-u

‘buy’

kak-i

kak-u

‘write’

nom-i

nom-u

‘drink’

isog-i

isog-u

‘hurry’

hanash-i

hanas-u

‘talk’

Group 2: RU-verbs (~iru, ~eru ending verbs)

To make the plain form of the verbs in this group, simply drop ~masu and add ~ru. In other words, you add ~ru to the stem. The stem of the verbs in this group ends in ~e or

~i .

Stem

Plain Form

English

tabe

tabe-ru

‘eat’

de

de-ru

‘leave, go out’

okure

okure-ru

‘get late’

i

i-ru

‘be’

mi

mi-ru

‘look’

deki

deki-ru

‘can do’

Warnings! Consider the two following questions.

  • Is it possible to determine which group a verb belongs to by just looking at the ~masu form? Yes and No.

Yes, because the ~emasu ending indicates that the verb is in Group 2.

No, because verbs with the ~imasu ending can be either in Group 1 or Group 2. This is because the stem of Group 1 verbs and some Group 2 verb both end in ~i, and therefore have the ~imasu ending in their formal forms.

Formal form

Plain form

Group

English

irimasu

ir-u

Group 1

‘need’

imasu

i-ru

Group 2

‘be’

  • Is it possible to determine which group a verb belongs to by just looking at the plain form? Yes and No.

Yes, because verbs that have endings other than ~eru and ~iru are in Group 1 (except for the few irregular verbs below).

No, because verbs with the ~eru or ~iru ending can be either Group 1 or 2. Iru, for example, can be either in Group 1 or Group 2 depending on where the cut is. If it is /i-ru/, then it’s group 2, meaning ‘be’, and if it is /ir-u/, then it’s in Group 1, meaning ‘need’.

Similarly, kaeru can be either in Group 1 or Group2 depending on where the cut is. If it is /kae-ru/, then it’s in Group 2, meaning ‘change’ and if it is /kaer-u/ then it’s in Group 1 meaning ‘go home’.

Formal form

Plain form

Group

English

kaemasu

kae-ru (kae-ru)

Group 2

‘change’

kaerimasu

kaer-u (kaer-u)

Group 1

‘go home’

Therefore, it’s important to check other forms to determine whether a verb belongs to Group 1 or Group 2 if the verb has these endings.

Group 3: Irregular Verbs

There are only four irregular verbs in Japanese.

Formal form

Plain form

English

kimasu

kuru

‘come’

shimasu

suru

‘do’

arimasu

aru

‘be’

ikimasu

iku

‘go’

The reason why arimasu and ikimasu are in this group and not in Group 1 will be explained when we discuss the plain negative forms and plain past forms.

Group 4: Special Polite Verbs

This group has only five verbs, all of which have polite meanings. We have seen the first four so far.

Formal form

Plain Form

English

irassyaimasu

irassharu

‘be, go come’

gozaimasu

gozaru

‘be’

kudasaimasu

kudasar-u

‘give (to me)’

nasaimasu

nasar-u

‘do’

osshaimasu

osshar-u

‘say’

The reasons why these are separated from Group 1 is because the /r/ marked in red above in the plain form drops in the formal form–before masu.

Here is a list of all the verbs we have had so far.


Group 1: U Verbs

Formal form

Plain form

-te form

English

1.kaimasu

kau

katte

buy

2.aimasu

au

atte

meet

3.tsukaimasu

tsukau

tsukatte

use

4.tetsudaimasu

tetsudau

tetsudatte

help

5.wakarimasu

wakaru

wakatte

understand

6.norimasu

noru

notte

get on

7.tsukurimasu

tsukuru

tsukutte

make

8.mawarimasu

mawaru

mawatte

go around, turn

9.kaerimasu

kaeru

kaette

go back

10.hashirimasu

hashiru

hashitte

run

11.irimasu

iru

itte

need

12.ganbarimasu

ganbaru

ganbatte

do your best

13.kakimasu

kaku

kaite

write

14.okurimasu

okuru

okutte

send

15.kikimasu

kiku

kiite

listen

16.arukimasu

aruku

aruite

walk

17.tsukimasu

tsuku

tsuite

arrive

18.nomimasu

Nomu

nonde

drink

19.yomimasu

yomu

yonde

read

20.yasumimasu

yasumu

yasunde

rest

21.isogimasu

isogu

isoide

hurry

22.hanashimasu

hanasu

hanashite

talk


Group 2: Ru Verbs

Formal form

Plain form

-te form

English

23.tabemasu

taberu

tabete

eat

24.mimasu

miru

mite

look

25.imasu

iru

ite

exist (animate)

26.dekimasu

dekiru

dekite

can do

27.demasu

deru

dete

leave, go out

28.orimasu

oriru

orite

get off

29.dekakemasu

dekakeru

dekakete

go out

30.norikaemasu

norikaeru

norikaete

transfer

31.machiawasemasu

machiawaseru

machiawasete

meet up

32.itadakemasu

itadakeru

itadakete

can receive


Group 3: Irregular Verbs

Formal form

Plain form

-te form

English

33.shimasu

suru

shite

do

34.kimasu

kuru

kite

come

35.iIkimasu

iku

itte

go

36.arimasu

aru

atte

exist


Group 4: Special Polite Verbs

Formal form

Plain form

-te form

English

37.irasshaimasu

irassharu

irasshatte

exist (animate, polite)

38.gozaimasu

gozaru

gozatte

exist (inanimate, polite)

39.kudasaimasu

kudasaru

kudasatte

give to me (polite)

40.nasaimasu

nasaru

nasatte

do

41.osshaimasu

ossharu

osshatte

say

Drills and Exercises image

A.

Cue: 相撲、見たくない?Don’t you want to see Sumo?

Response:あ、見たい。Oh, I want to.

Cue: すし、食べたくない?Don’t you want to eat Sushi?

Response:あ、食べたい。Oh, I want to.

B.

Cue: すし、食べますか?Will you eat Sushi?

Response:うん、食べる.Yeh, I will.

Cue: 勉強、しますか?Will you study?

Response: うん、する。Yeh, I will.

C.

Say it in Japanese.

A friend has asked you what you want to do this weekend.

  • I’d like to go to Fukuoka and see the festival.
  • I’d like to study because there will be an exam next week.
  • I’d like to read the new book by Murakami.
  • I’d like to clean my apartment and do laundry.
  • I’d like to see my friends and go shopping.

Ask a friend the following questions.

  • Do you drink coffee?
  • Do you have homework this weekend?
  • Do you speak French?
  • Is Prof. Yamamoto in today?
  • Do you need chopsticks?

D.

Act in Japanese.

  • Ask a friend if he is free a) next weekend, b) the end of the month, c) the end of the year.
  • Ask a friend if she feels like a) having coffee, b) having ramen, c) going to an

onsen.

  • Reply a) yes, you want to, b) no you do not, c) no, not particularly.
  • As you part with a friend, tell her that you are going to call her later.
  • Ask a friend to send you that file you two talked about because you want to take a look.

 

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