Michael has settled into his new apartment. Ms. Honda is checking if he needs anything.
Honda: Isu toka tsukue, arimasu ka.Do you have things like chairs and desks?
いすとか 机 、ありますか。
Michael: Hai, isu mo tsukue mo arimasu.Yes, I have both chairs and desks.
はい、いすも 机 もあります。
Daijoubu desu.I’m fine.
Honda: Hontou desu ka. Terebi wa?No kidding. How about a television?
Michael: Aa, terebi wa irimasen. Oh, a television I don’t need.
isu いす chair
toka とか such (things) as
tsukue つくえ机 desk
isu toka tsukue いすとかつくえいすとか机 things like chairs and a desk
~mo ~mo 〜も〜も both ~ and ~
isu mo tsukue mo いすもつくえもいすも机も both chairs and desks
daijoubu だいじょうぶ（な）大丈夫 fine, safe, okay
hontou ほんとう本当 truth, reality, fact
terebi てれびテレビ television
＋ya や such (things) as
＋teeburu てえぶるテーブル table
＋beddo べっどベッド bed
＋reizouko れいぞうこ冷蔵庫 refrigerator
＋sentaku (shimasu) せんたく洗濯 laundry
＋sentaku-ki せんたくき洗濯機 washing machine
＋souji (shimasu) そうじ掃除 cleaning
＋souji-ki そうじき掃除機 vacuum cleaner
＋eakon えあこんエアコン air conditioner
/Noun to ka Noun/ means that the referenced nouns are examples of the category under discussion. /Noun ya Noun/ is its more formal version. More than two examples can be listed, but it’s unusual to have more than three or four.
Isu toka tsukue, arimasu ka. Do you have things like chairs and desks?
Isu ya tsukue arimasu ka. Do you have things like chairs and desks?
Isu toka tsukue toka terebi, arimasu ka. Do you have things like a chair, desk, and TV?
Toka does not require another noun to follow it while ya does. Therefore, the following are possible.
Keitai toka tsukaimasu ka. Do you use things like smartphone?
Keitai toka sumaho toka tsukaimaus ka. Do you use things like cellphones and smartphones?
X mo Y mo means ‘both X and Y’ in an affirmative sentence and ‘neither X nor Y’ in a negative sentence. Compare the three responses below.
Kore to are, irimasu ka. Do you need this and that?
–Hai, kore mo are mo irimasu. Yes, I need them both.
-Iie, kore mo are mo irimasen. No, I don’t need either this or that.
–Iie, kore wa irimasu kedo, are wa irimasen. No, I need this, but I don’t need that.
In the first two responses, both items share a similarity, i.e., you need both or you don’t need either, but in the third sentence the two items are being contrasted, i.e. you need one but not the other, thus the particle wa is used.
Listen to the audio. Following the first two model exchanges, respond to each cue.
Cue: Isu to ka tsukue, arimasu ka. Do they have things like chairs and desks?
Response: Hai, isu mo tsukue mo arimasu. Yes, they have both chairs and desks.
Cue: Keetai to ka sumaho, arimasu ka.
Do they have things like mobile phones and smart phones?
Response: Hai, keetai mo sumaho mo arimasu.
Yes, they have both mobile phones and smart phones.
Cue: Isu ya tsukue, arimasu ka. Do they have things like chairs and desks?
Response: Ie, isu mo tsukue mo arimasen. No, they have neither chairs nor desks.
Cue: Eigo ya Supeingo, wakarimasu ka. Do they understand things like English and Spanish?
Response: Ie, eigo mo supeingo mo wakarimasen. No, they understand neither English nor Spanish.
C. Say it in Japanese.
You’ve been asked what you need for your new apartment.
- I have everything. I’m fine.
- I have a chair, but I have neither a desk nor a table.
- I have a refrigerator, but I do not have a washer. I wonder if there is a cheap washer.
- I have a bed and chair, but I do not have a TV. I do not have a vacuum cleaner, either.
- I have things like a table and chair, but I do not have a refrigerator, a washer, etc.
You’ve been asked about this weekend’s weather.
- It will be nice on both Sat. and Sun.
- It will be nice on Sat., but it will rain on Sun.
- It will be nice on Sat. and Sun., but it will rain on Monday.
- It rained yesterday AND today, right? I wonder if it will rain again tomorrow.
- It was cold yesterday. But it will be beautiful on Sunday.
D. Act in Japanese with a partner.
- A stranger just slipped and fell in front of you. React!
- You’ve just heard something incredible. Express your surprise/disbelief.
- Find out if your classmates do Facebook, Twitter, etc.
- Ask a co-worker if he cleans, does laundry, etc. often.
- With a partner, discuss what furniture/appliances you have in your apartments, how they are, and what you need. Make sure you are a good listener. Use hesitation noise, and echo questions where appropriate.