Mr. Smith and Ms. Honda are preparing PPT for an upcoming presentation.
Honda：Are, dekimasita ka.Is that done?
Smith： Ee, kinou tsukurimasita. Yes, I made it yesterday.
Honda：Chotto renshuu-shimasen ka? Shall we practice a little?
Smith：Hai, wakarimashita.Sure, okay.
dekimasu できます can do, come into being
dekimashita できました could do, came into being
kinou きのう yesterday
renshuu れんしゅう練習 practice (noun)
renshuu-shimasu れんしゅうします 練習します practice (verb)
wakarimashita わかりました got it
＋benkyou べんきょう勉強 study (noun)
＋benkyou-shimasu べんきょうします 勉強します study (verb)
＋meeru めいるメール email, text (noun)
＋meeru-shimasu めいるします メールします email, text (verb)
＋kopii こぴいコピー copy (noun)
＋kopii-shimasu こぴいします コピーします copy (verb)
＋denwa でんわ 電話 phone, phone call
＋denwa-shimsu でんわします 電話します make a phone call
＋unten うんてん運転 drive (noun)
＋unten-shimasu うんてんします運転します drive (verb)
＋ototoi おととい day before yesterday
As explained in 1-1-1 above, the verb –masu form is Non-Past and indicates both present and future. Past is indicated by changing –masu to –mashita (Affirmative) and –masen to –masen deshita (Negative). Here is a chart that shows all forms.
Table 2. Affirmative forms of verbs in both past and non-past
/Noun + shimasu / combinations are compound verbs. Many nouns that mean actions such as renshuu ‘practice’ and benkyou ‘study’ appear in this pattern. When verbs in English are borrowed into Japanese, –shimasu is attached to them and they become Japanese verbs. Make sure you pronounce them in the Japanese way.
Meeru-shimasu yo. I’ll email (or text) you.
Getto-shimasu. I’ll get it/I’ll obtain it.
Appuroodo-shimasu. I’ll upload it.
Cue: Renshuu-shimasu ka.Will you practice?
Response: Ee, chotto renshuu-shimasen ka. Yes, why don’t we practice a little?
Cue: Kaimasu ka. Will you buy it?
Response: Ee, chotto kaimasenka.Yes, why don’t we buy a little?
Cue: Yasumimashita ne. You were absent, right?
Response: Kinou wa yasumimashita kedo, ototoi wa yasumimasen deshita.
I was absent yesterday, but I wasn’t the day before yesterday
Cue: Ikimashita ne. You went, right?
Response: Kinou wa ikimashita kedo, ototoi wa ikimasen deshita.
I went yesterday, but I didn’t the day before yesterday.
C. Say it in Japanese.
You’ve been asked about your plan for this weekend.
- I’ll study.
- Why don’t we talk tomorrow?
- I emailed you yesterday. Didn’t you read it?
- I don’t know, but why don’t we go out?
- I’ll just take a break, but how about you, Mr. Yamada?
D. Act in Japanese.
- You’ve just finished writing a report. Announce that it’s done.
- You have just given an intern some instructions. Check if he understood.
- As you part, let Ms. Honda know that you’ll email her.
- A classmate is late in showing up. Suggest that somebody call her.
- While driving, you see Ms. Honda walking. Offer her a ride.
- Ms. Honda is looking for something. Ask if she didn’t buy it yesterday.